The trouble with history is that more than what time has erased, it is the invaders and imperialists who have destroyed the memory and the knowledge of many great cultures around the world. To make a bad situation worse, historians and philosophers have imposed a maze of fables and legends, quite often stolen from other great cultures, to weave a web in an endeavor to camouflage the truth, and in the endevour to falsely enhance the greatness of their own culture while deriding that of alien cultures. By these contortions, the truth about the history of the world was lost, in some parts of the world completely so.

However, some parts of the history can be still be restored by various means and tools. In the context of culture and literature, one such tool is the study of the etymologies of the ancient most names of rivers and mountains of the world. As against the names of towns and cities which often takes the name of any ruler who comes in and takes over charge, the names of mountains and rivers tend to change ever so slowly. These names reveal information about the ancient most times, about the language spoken then, and the relationship of these cultures with nature itself at the time, when these names first emerged. That becomes immensely important especially in areas where the history is completely lost.

Tunisia is one such example. Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers in ancient times before Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC under whose aegis it saw the emergence of the very affluent city of Carthage. Carthage flourished from the 12th century BC to the 2nd century BC when it fell to the Romans after the third Punic War.

The historical study of Carthage is problematic precisely because of the reason mentioned above. The culture and records of Carthage were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, and hence very few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive. While there are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in Northwest Africa, the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, who belonged to peoples in competition and hence their accounts of Carthage are extremely hostile.

Nevertheless some information can still be retrieved from the ancient surviving names of rivers and mountains of Tunisia. Take for example the Madjerda river or the Bagrada as it was called in antiquity, the longest river in Tunisia that rises in the Atlas mountains in Algeria and flows through Tunisia and empties into the Gulf of Tunis and Lake Tunis.

The language that the Carthagians spoken was the Punic, also called Canaanite or Phoenicio-Punic which is an extinct variety of the Phoenician family, a Cannanite language of the Semitic family, yet the ancient names of the rivers and mountains of Tunisia can be explained by Sanskrit, a language that is classified as Indo-European.

First the name Madjerda. Jerah, jernah, jardan and its many variations that appear in the names of rivers such as the Niger, or the Jordon, also appears in the name Madjerda. Different cultures have given different etymologies to these names.

Lets first turn west and look at Ptolemy’s analysis of the name Niger. In his writings Ptolemy mentioned two rivers in the desert of NIger, one by the name ‘Gir’ and farther south, the ‘Ni-Gir”. Roman historian, Suetonius (69-122 AD) wrote that the name ‘gher’ originates from the Bereber language, spoken in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria and means ‘watercourse’.

But it is obvious that the word ‘gir’ is a distortion of the same Sanskrit word that appears in the names of rivers around the word. The word is ‘jhara’, and appear in the names of many rivers and water bodies around the world such as the ‘Jari’ which is the northern tributary of the River Amazon, River Jara in Melbourne, the Jara River (a tributary of the Susita River) in Romania, or Lake Jara in New Mexico – not to mention many more in India and Nepal. In Sanskrit the word ‘jhara’ (झर) means a waterfall or a water body, and ‘jhari’ (झरी) means a river.

It is evident that the name Madjerda also falls into the same category and is probably also connected to the name Algeria, with jerda and geria as being the variations of the above mentioned ‘jhara’. The ‘mad’ prefix can be explained by the sanskrit ‘mada’ which means ‘intoxicant’ and can be attributed to the turbulent  flow of the water.

The more ancient name of Madjerda is Bagrada. In the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), William Smith states,” Ba’ Grada or Ba’ Gradas the chief river of the Carthaginian territory (afterwards the Roman province of Africa), had its source, according to Ptolemy, in the mountain called Mampsaurus, in Numidia, and flowed northeast into the Gulf of Carthage.”

In the name Bagrada, the suffix ‘rada’ may be a distortion of ‘ruda’ which appears in the names of many rivers and is traced to Arabic rud meaning river. In Sanskrit, rudh (रुद्) has to with weep, or flow and is probably also the source of the Arabic ‘rud’. ‘Bagha’ is a appears in Indian river names such as ‘Baghirathi’ and in names such as ‘Chandrabhaga’, the ancient name of river Chenab.

Polybius mentions the river under the name of Macaras, which Gesenius considers to be its genuine Punic name, derived from Mokar, also called Melqart or Milkartu, the variation of the name Hercules in Tyrian and Akkadian tradition. Tyre was a the port city of ancient Lebanon.(Monumenta Phoenicia, p. 95).

And because its other names such as Bagrada and Madjerda are easily decoded by Sanskrit, a look at the name Macaras is essential as makk (मक्क) is Sanskrit for ‘move’ or ‘go’ and maybe interpreted as ‘flow’. Makkara is a sea creature in Hindu mythology and is the vehicle of the river-goddess Ganga, Narmada and the sea-god Varuna.

That the Phoenicians, like the Greeks and Romans, assigned divine dignity to their rivers, is well known; but it may be worth while to notice the proof furnished, in this specific case, by the treaty of the Carthaginians with Philip, in which the rivers of the land are invoked among the attesting deities (Polyb. vii. Fr. 3).

The modern name Mejerdah furnishes one among many instances, in the geography of North Africa, in which the ancient Punic name Bagradas, corrupted by the Greeks and Romans, has been more or less closely restored in the kindred Arabic. (As stated in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood by William Smith, LLD. London. Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1854.). However, it is Sanskrit that reveals the real meaning of all these names and above all provides a cultural context and richness to the names.

But why would there be a connection between Punic names and Sanskrit. Here is the story, but first information about Carthage from Wikipedia where it is stated that “the city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC on the coast of Northwest Africa, in what is now Tunisia, as one of a number of Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean created to facilitate trade from the city of Tyre on the coast of what is now Lebanon. The name of both the city and the wider republic that grew out of it, Carthage developed into a significant trading empire throughout the Mediterranean. The date from which Carthage can be counted as an independent power cannot exactly be determined, and probably nothing distinguished Carthage from the other Phoenician colonies in Northwest Africa and the Mediterranean during 800–700 BC. By the end of the 7th century BC, Carthage was becoming one of the leading commercial centres of the West Mediterranean region. After a long conflict with the emerging Roman Republic, known as the Punic Wars (264–146 BC), Rome finally destroyed Carthage in 146 BC. ”

The Rig Veda, A History Showing how the Phoenicians had their earliest home in India.

Ancient Haran, located north of Euphrates River.Haran is another name of Vedic God Shiva.Sanskritic names on the map include a townby the name ‘Nagar’ – Sanskrit for ‘town’.

The ancient river names of Babylon too include Sanskritic names. One of the rivers of Babylon is the ‘Karun’. ‘Karun’ (करुन) is Sanskrit for ‘compassionate’ or ‘plaintive’. The other major river of Babylon is the Tigris. The Tigris has always been described as the ‘swift river’ as compared to the ‘slow moving’ Euphrates. The most common etymological source of the Tigris is the Sanskrit ‘Vyagra’ (व्याग्र) meaning ‘tiger’. The Persian name for Tigris was Arvand-Rud. ‘Arvan’ (अर्वन्) in Sanskrit also means ‘fast’ or ‘swift’. The Euphrates flows through Mesopotamia for some 1,700 miles (2,700 km) from its source in eastern Turkey to the Persian Gulf. Edward Pococke was of the view that the Greek name Euphrates is derived from the Sanskrit ‘Su’ and ‘Bharat’, after the name of the ancient king ‘Bharat’. This may well have been so for the Akkadian name for the river was ‘Purattu’, probably a distortion of ‘Bharat’. Fausset’s Bible dictionary states that in the word Euphrates, the first syllable Eu, is derived from the Sanskrit Su (सु), which denotes ‘good’; the second syllable denotes ‘abundant’. The Sanskrit word for abundant is ‘Purna’ (पूर्ण). Hence Euphrates may be derived from the Sanskrit ‘Su-Purna’ (सुपूर्ण) meaning ‘Good-Abundance’.

The Babylonians and Assyrians called Euphrates ‘Su-Purattu’. It was known as ‘Purattu’ in Akkadian and ‘Puranti’ in Hurrian, ‘Puranti’ may be linked to Sanskrit ‘Purandhi’ (पुरन्धि) which means ‘bountiful’ or ‘abundant’ and is therefore consistent with the meaning of its name given in Fausset’s Bible Dictionary.

These names indicate that even before the Phoenicians or Phani settled in Babylon, Vedic Hindus were perhaps travelling to these areas and had already colonized and named these lands. Or else, the Phoenician who spoke a lowly language or a lower form of Sanskrit for which they were ridiculed by the Vedic Hindus, in naming their new colonies and settlements, they too used the Sanskrit language, perhaps with the aim of upgrading themselves to the level of aryas or the nobility of the society from which they were driven away.

When the Pani started trading, the system of payment was barter. But because they travelled, barter was a cumbersome process. Eventually the Panis invented the first metal coin in about 1200 BC. It is therefore from ‘pani’ that the word ‘money’ is derived, though etymological dictionaries do not generally accept this derivation of the word ‘money’.

The Phoenician God Baala is referred to as Vala in the Rig Veda, whom Indra is supposed to have defeated and killed in the final battle between the Panis and Vedic Hindus. The Phoenicians were astute skills men and traders; and money was their only focus. Though they are known to have been practitioners of child sacrifice, it is generally believed that Phoenician carvings of what appear to be child sacrifice might have been misinterpreted. Current research reveals that the 6000 urns found in Cartharage – one of the Phoenician cities, are urns contain foetuses and bones of still born babies rather than of babies who have been sacrificed. There are no references to any child sacrifice by the Phoenicians or Panis in the Rig Veda either. However, the Hebrew Bible links the name of the Cannanite God Moloch to child sacrifice. The Hebrew Bible states that the Moloch derives from combining the consonants of the Hebrew melech (king) with the vowels of boshet (shame). In the Sanskrit tradition anyone who was not noble was a malecch, and the Vedic Hindus looked upon the Panis as malecchas. That tradition probably may have carried on in the Phoenician society too until the name maleccha emerged as Moleck and became the god of the Panis or Phoenicians.

Syria, another city where the Panis constructed settlements for themselves, mag derive its name either from Sanskrit ‘Surya’ or sun, or from Sanskrit ‘sura’ meaning deity. The latter is more likely for in India the nobility or the deities were referred to as ‘sura-s’, and was a clan and association with it was much aspired for during the early Vedic times.

Another Phoenician city that the Panis developed was Carthage located on the coast of Northwest Africa, in what is now Tunisia. It was created to facilitate trade from the city of Tyre on the coast of Lebanon. Carthage developed into a significant trading empire throughout the Mediterranean. A sarcophagus found in Carthage depicts the hand gesture of a priest in an Indic blessing mudra.

At Lebanon, the name perhaps a distortion of the Sanskrit name Lavana, was built a majestic temple dedicated to the Phani God mentioned in the Rigveda – Vaal; or Baal as he later came to be called. The Phoenicians build this very Indic temple, known as Balbek on the pattern of temples in India. The ceilings of this temple were carved with lotuses much like the ancient temples of India. The lotus is not indigenous to Lebanon, and it is said that the skilled labour that constructed this massive temple with the help of elephants transported from India, also brought with them the design from the temples of India. In the Vedic tradition the lotus is sacred and is a symbol of wisdom, and is the highest offering that is made to god. Its occurrence on the ceilings of Balbek is therefore not just a design but an invocation of the offerings made to god.

A Sarcophagus of a priest. Carthage 4th century BC

The raised hand is typical blessings gesture of a Hindu priest

indicating a continued link of the Phoenicians 

with Vedic India – a land they had been driven away from.

The entrance of the Balbek Temple

is very Indic in design. Elaborate carvings on the 
entrance gate edges are commonly seen on Hindu or Vedic temples

Lotus motifs on the ceiling indicate a Vedic Hindu link.

Elaborate lotus carvings are the most common design in

Ancient Vedic temples.

The most ancient name of Lebanon first appeared in history around 4000 BC and is recorded in ancient Egyptian annals as ‘Rmnn’ – a reminder of the Hindu Vedic king Rama. Also the name Canaan appears as ‘ki-na-ah-na’ in the Amarna letters dated to 14th century BC and is a reminder of the name Kanan, another name of Sri Krishna. The names of Rama and Krishna appear as Ramah in the names of a few towns in Israel and the name of Krishna appears in the name of river Kishon in Israel.
The Phoenicians had continued association with India and this can be inferred from the fact that in the inscriptions, sculpture and carvings of Phoenician cities traces of Indic culture are still found. As far as the dates are concerned, Indian scholars have long argued that the Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata are way older than western scholars have put forth in their theories. Hence, the Panis who’s name appears in Vedas are way older than the rough dating of 2000 BC. Hence it is not surprising that the Panis have left their traces and those of Hindu deities like Indra, Rama and Krishna in ciites that are at least 4000 years old. Here is an artifact from the Phoenician city of Nimrud dated to 900 BCE. Nimrud was known by names such as Kalhu, Caleh and Calah. The city had been built on the location of an earlier Phoenician city under the reign of Shalmaneser I (1274-1245 BCE) but had become dilapidated over the centuries and Ashurbanipal II rebuilt the city later. The Assyrian Empire was ruled from Kalhu from 879-706 BC. Both the names, Assyria and the name of the Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal, derive from the Sanskrit Asura or demons, those who were driven away by the devatas, the deities. In the Vedic tradition all those who were defeated by the devatas were asuras. In this case one must refer to the Vedas which state that the Panis were defeated by Indra devata himself and came to be associated with the name asura.

An artifact from the Phoenician city of Nimrud or 

what was known as Kalhu or Caleh, dated to 900BC. 

The tile is identified as that of Ashurbanipal II with his attendants. 

But it is obvious that this artifact depicts the lore of Sri Rama, Sita and Laxman of the Ramayana.

Suggested readings

1. Is Cherokee=Phoenician by American Cherokee Association and Gene Matlock
2. About the Phoenicians and the Jews by Gene Matlock
3. Some aspects of Ancient Glass Making in India by V. Govrnn
4. Phoenician by Gene Matlock

5. Phoenicia by Joshua J. Mark

6.The Phoenicians in East Africa


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