In his book ‘Travels in various parts of Peru’, which is a description of his voyage to Peru in the 1830s, the author Edmond Temple came to the conclusion with regard to the physical appearance or the phenotype of people of various sects and tribes of Peruvians that it is “a circumstance which supports the theory that these parts of South America were originally peopled from the shores of the Eastern world.” page 378.

Edward Moor remarks about the above theory in his book ‘Oriental Fragments’ (1834), “Whatever support such theory may hitherto have found, yet stronger will, I think, be derived from a comparative consideration of the remains of the earlier languages of both South and North America, still extant in the old names of rivers, mountains, towns”.

It may be concluded that the physical appearance, and the remnants of the ancient languages spoken in this part of the world, and their festivals. indicates that there was a link to the Eastern world.

Moor further observes that if one were to skim the place names in Mexico and Peru with this views many confirmations of the above theory might occur, a subject dealt here, and here.

On the cultural aspect Moor makes a note of one such example and states, “Rama is also found in other points to resemble the Indian Bacchus. He is, notwithstanding his lunar appellation of Ramachandra, fabled to be a descendant of the sun. His wife’s name is Sita; and it is very remarkable that the Peruvians, whose Incas boasted of the same descent, styled their great festival Ramasitoa”.

These names appear as Raymi and Citua today in the Incan calendar of festivals though the etymology of these names and their cultural links are forgotten. Here is a full list of the Incan festivals:

The Incan calendar had 12 months of 30 days, with each month having its own festival, and a five-day feast at the end, before the new year began. The Incan year started in December, and began with Capac Raymi.

Gregorian Month

Inca Month
Ayrihua or Camay Inca Raymi
Aymoray qu or Hatun Cuzqui
Inti Raymi
Coya Raymi and Citua
K’antaray or Uma Raymi
Capac Raymi

Fast and Panitence
Great Ripening
Earth Ripening
Festival of the Inca
Feast of the Sun
The Harvest Festival
Sowing Month
Festival of the Moon
Month of Crop watching
Festival of the Dead
Magnificent Festival

List of festivals, courtesy Ancient Inca Empire at https://ancient-inca-empire.weebly.com/religious-festivals.html

In a charge delivered by Dr. Richard Watson (1737- 1816), a Christian cleric, an author and Lord Bishop of Llandaff, to the clergy of the archdeaconry of Ely in May, 1780, are many curious and shrewd observations on oriental usages. He notices ‘a string of customs wholly the same amongst people so far removed from each other as the Egyptians and Peruvians’.

The Egyptian women, Watson sais, “make sacred cakes of flour, which they offered to the queen of heaven at their principal solar festivals called Raymi and Citua: the Peruvian women did the same. Almost all the customs described as common to those distant people, the Egyptians and Peruvians, as well as that quoted, are Hindu customs; ancient and existing.”

The sun god in Egypt too was Ra, perhaps a truncated form of the name Ram, his consort was Satet, the goddess of fertility who also goes by the names Setet, Sathit, Satit, Sati, Setis, Sethat,and Satis which are all cognates of the name Sita, the wife of Lord Rama in the Indian tradition, which explains the name Citua.

Edward Moor makes another observation from the writings of Pietro della Valle (1586-1652), an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who travelled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period. His travels took him to the Holy Land, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and India.

Moor states,”Having mentioned the faithful Sita one of the most interesting females in Hindu poetics, I will here note though confessedly not much in place that the alike interesting Sitti Maani, so pathetically mentioned by the traveller Pietro Bella Valle, and described as an Assyrian girl, would, from her name, lead one to think that she must have been a Hindu, rather than a Mahomeddan though she is said to have been born in Baghdad. Sitamani is Hindi.”

Records from Pietro Valle’s writings say that Sitti Maani Gioerida was an Assyrian Christian girl that he had married who died while Pietro Valle was still on his voyage and carried the corpse in a lead box till he arrived back in England. Moor laments that Pietro Valle did not research enough to find out the antecedents of Sitti Maani, her antecedents and her ancestry to find why she was given such a name, which is more Indic than Assyrian.


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