Camulodunum, an ancient site was an important town in Roman Britain. It is claimed to be the oldest town in Britain

Prior to the Roman seize ‘Camulodunon’ was the site of a Celtic settlement named after the Celtic god Camulus from which the prefix in the name Camulodunon is derived. The suffix ‘dunum’ means fortification in the ancient Celtic language, similar to the Sanskrit ‘durgham’ (दुर्गम) meaning ‘impassable’ or ‘inaccessible’. It was argued by scholars such as Edward Moor and Edward Pococke that towns in Europe that have the suffix ‘burg’ are ‘fort towns’ – ‘burg’ a distortion of the Sanskrit ‘durg’ (दुर्ग) meaning ‘fort’.

There is some debate on the location of the ancient site of Camulodunon and it has been mainly traced to two present day towns  – Colchester and Camerton. In the neighbourhood of Colchester which is named after the river Colne that flows nearby, there are some vestiges of Sanskrit legends.

River Blackwater and the town of Maldon lie close to
River Colne-  a name that is linked to Sanskrit ‘kala
meaning ‘black’. See map below.

The word ‘Cala’ or its cognates occur in names of English and Scottish rivers especially if they have something to do with black. Hence a river by the name ‘Blackwater’ also runs close to Colne. ‘Maldon’ is a town close to River Blackwater. Edward Moor in his book ‘Oriental Fragments’ identifies ‘Maldon’ as the Sanskrit compound ‘mAludhAna’ (मालुधान) which means ‘serpent’. Whether it has any relation to the serpent mounds such as the one in Loch Nell will never be known. Moor also identifies the word ‘Cala’ to the Sanskrit ‘kAla’ (काल) meaning ‘black’ and to Lord Shiva. ‘Kala’ is also ‘time’, ‘yesterday’ and ‘tomorrow’ in the Sanskrit language.

In his book “oriental Fragments’, Edward Moor
traces the sound ‘col’ in  the names ‘Colne’, and  ‘Colchester’
to the Sanskrit ‘kala’ 
(कालmeaning ‘black’.
  Notice that River Blackwater flows nearby..

Edward Moor states, “Cala is not an uncommon name for a river in regions very distant from each other meaning, where a meaning can be traced, black. The river Blackwater runs near Colchester…”. 

Referring to the town of Kalamata in Greece he states, “Calamata, I will here note, is at the foot of Mount Parnassus. Mountains or hills, more especially if
conical, as then being more probably of volcanic
origin, we shall by-and-by see are appurtenances of Siva and Parvati…  which means mountain-born….The river Calamata reminds us that the Nile, and
other rivers, have a like meaning of blackness or
blueness. Kali is a river famed in Hindu epics. Nila means blue; so does Krishna, or black. The
poetical river Jumna, as we call it, is, with Hindus, ‘Yamuna, the blue daughter of the Ocean’.”

Referring to the name Kalinadi, he states,” (It is) a Sanskrit compound name of more than one river in India;
best translated by Black-river, or Black-water ; and
the name of more than one (river) in Britain”. His estimate was that near the Colne and Blackwater rivers, archaeological excavations and time must reveal ancient sites or temples. 

Moor was intrigued by what what Pausanius, an ancient Greek traveller and writer, had noticed in the town of Kalamata – that is, a temple of the Syrian goddess! The temple of Syri, Edward Moor says, could really have been the temple of Kali or Parvati! Syri is a cognate of the Vedic name Sri, which is yet another name of Kali!! Hence the name of the town – Kalamata!!!

About Scotland Moor states, “In Scotland I could find many Kalic-isms, as the recent spelling of Caledonia may lead us to infer. I have before hinted that Kali-dun is the Hill of Kal, Caldew a name of Siva, Cal another…. “. Read Caldew as Kala-deva, and Cal as Kal

1. The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany, Volume 14
2. Oriental Fragment by Edward Moor


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