The earliest civilizations of the Middle East and their Sanskrit names:

1. Sumer (3200 BC) is named after mountain Meru whose name appears repeatedly in Vedic scriptures, manuscripts and texts of ancient India. Often interpreted as the name of a mountain, the more scientific interpretation is that Meru represents the middle-point of the the axis of the earth, one end of the axis is known as Sumeru, the other end as Kumeru. This is evident from the fact that the cerebro-spinal nerve of the human body is known as ‘mastishk-meru-cheta’ (मस्तिष्क-मेरु-चेता) in Sanskrit, ‘meru’ meaning ‘spine’.

The earliest civilizations of the Middle East

a. Sumerian Dynasty of Kush: Forbidden archaeology and new excavations point to the fact that the extant of the area depicted in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata far exceeds the geographical limits of present day India. The story of the Ramayana and the Mahabharat is the history of the world. Because the knowledge of world history is preserved in India, it is erroneously believed that the geographical scope of the Ramayana and Mahabharat  is also limited to India. 

The word Maha-Bharat itself implies Pan-Bharat or all those areas which were culturally related to Bharat. The Mahabharata was once known as ‘Jaya’- meaning ‘victory’ – its scope extending far beyond India.

The Dynasty of Kish or Kush is believed to be named after the son of Sri Rama whose name was Kush. Sri Rama and his brothers establish their sons as the kings of various regions. The last chapter of the Uttara Kand Section of Valmiki Ramayana describes the story of the time when Sri Rama, Bharata and Shatrugna happily ascend a ‘heavenly vehicle’ (which seems much like a massive spaceship rather than ‘heaven’) and leave their kingdom to their sons.

The Ramayana has stayed alive in the memory of the world because its influence was much wider than Ayodhya in India.

b. Dynasty of Lagash: The Sumerian city of Lagash was also known as Sirpurla and was located to the north-west of the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris. The name ‘Sirpurla’ probably emerges from Sanskrit ‘Surpura’ (सुरपुर) which means ‘city of gods’, also ‘heaven’. Its neighboring city was named ‘Umma’, probably a distortion of ‘Uma’, the name of the consort of Lord Shiva.

The Sumerian cities of Sippar and Nippur are located on the path of the ancient Euphrates. The ‘par ‘and ‘pur’ are probable corruptions of the Sanskrit ‘pura’ meaning ‘town’ or ‘city’. The first syllable in both names are short and may have meanings in many languages, however as a combination word Nippur would mean the ‘low lying city’, nIpa (नीप) in Sanskrit meaning that which is situated on the ‘lower side’, and ‘nipa’ (निप) ‘that which absorbs’ or ‘soaks’. A corruption of any number of words, ‘sipa’ could be a distortion of ‘ksipa’ (क्षिप्) which means ‘to pour’. That would make ‘Sippar’, the ‘city that poured’ (the waters of Euphrates) and ‘Nippur’ located at the lower end of the water flow making it ‘the city that receives’ (the waters of the Euphrates). Some historians trace the roots of the name Nippur to the word ‘Nabha’. ‘Nabhapur’ – hence the city of the ‘Nabhas’. Others have linked the name Sippar to Shiva-pura, the ‘city of Lord Shiva’ of whom ‘Uma’ was the consort – hence the city of Umma mentioned above.

2. The Akkadian Empire is also referred to as Agade and Uri. One theory holds that Agade was situated opposite Sippar on the left bank of the Euphrates, and was perhaps the 
oldest part of the city of Sippar. ‘Agad’ (अगद) in Sanskrit means ‘magic jewel’, ‘Ur’ (उर) means ‘canal’ and ‘Uru’ (उरु) means ‘excellent’. Uru was also the name of one of the sons of Manu.

Notice names such as ‘Nagar’ ( नगर ) meaning town
and ‘Haran’ probably from Sanskrit ‘Harani’ (हरणि)
meaning ‘water-channel’. Or ‘Harani’ could be
named after ‘Hari’ (हरी) meaning ‘god’ in Sanskrit.

Click here and here to read about the Sanskrit links to the names Euphrates and Tigris.

Sumerian cities have names that have a remarkable resemblance to Sanskrit names. An example is ‘Eshnunna’, ‘Esha’ (ईश) means ‘powerful’, ‘Annuna’ (अनून) means ‘whole’ or ‘having full power’. One of the kings of Esnunna was ‘Naram-Suen’ or ‘Narem-Sin’ probably ‘Narsimha’ (नरसिंह) meaning the ‘Lion-Man’, another King was named ‘Ishar-Ramashshu’ which is close to ‘Isha Rama’ followed by a suffix’, and yet another ‘Asurawasu’, which is identical to ‘Asura-Vasu’ and so on.


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