In Chapter 40 of the Kishkinda Kand of the epic Ramayana, the author Sage Valmiki states that the Udaya Adri (उदय अद्रि) (‘Udaya’ means ‘Sunrise’ and ‘Aadri’ means ‘Mountain’) can be located after crossing many oceans when travelling east of India. In Chapter 40 the ‘vanaras’ travelling east of India are directed to reach Udaya Mountain – they were to cross Yava (Java), Golden & Silver Islands (Sumatra, Bali etc.), Mt. Shishira, River Shona, Plaksha Island, Ikshu Island, the ‘furious’ Ikshu Samudra, and then passing the ‘disastrous’ Lohita Ocean would bring them to Shalmali Dvipa. Shalmali Dvipa has been identified by researchers as the Australian land mass. 

Further they would pass the ocean which has milky waters, Mt. Rishaba and Lake Sudarshana. This seems to be a reference to the mountains and islands around New Zealand.

This is the path that Sugreeva chalks out for the ‘vanaras’ headed east of India in search of Goddess Sita. Refer to Kishkinda Kand Chapter 40 of the Ramayana.

Further on, the ‘vanaras’ are told, that they would come across the so called mighty ‘Soft Ocean’ (Jala Sagaram) whose waves are quite often ferocious. Then Valmiki says the ‘vanaras’ would pass the ‘fantastically refulgent fire resembling the face of a horse‘ (Verse 4-48). This for sure is a reference to what is today called the ‘Pacific Ring of Fire’ .

The area encircling the Pacific Ocean is called the ‘Ring of Fire,’ because its edges mark a circle of high volcanic and seismic activity (earthquakes). Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located on this circumference.

The Pacific Ring of Fire’ is described in

 Chapter 40, Verse 48 of the Valmiki Ramayana

Once the mighty ‘Soft Water Ocean’ (which has been identified as the Pacific) has been crossed the ‘vanaras’ would then reach the Udaya Mountains where they will see Jaat-Shila-Rupa (which translates as Golden Rock Peak), etched on which is a ‘golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches with a golden podium‘. 

Sugreev continues, “That pylon of palm tree is constructed as the easterly compass by celestial gods beyond which lies the Udaya Adri.” (Verse 4-52). The Udaya Adri mountains are the Andes of South America. And in the Andes range of Peru is the ‘Shining or Golden Trident’. Today it is known as the ‘Paracas Trident’. It shines to this day and is visible from the skies.

The ‘Shining Trident’ beyond which lies the
‘Udaya Adri’ (Sunrise Mountain) is described in
Chapter 40 Verse 53 of Valmiki Ramayana.

According to the Ramayana, day breaks on earth in the Udaya Adri. In today’s world we are conditioned to think that sun rises first in Japan. But the fact is that at every geographical point of land in the world, darkness will fade away and day will break at a certain point of time every day. 

So why did the Ramayana choose the Andes as the point of sunrise, or in other words, why was day-break in Peru over the Andean Mountains chosen as the first ray of sun for the entire earth. Why not India, Japan, or any other place?

Chapter 40 Verse 57 of the Kishkinda Kand gives the reason. It says that when Lord Vishnu first ‘invaded’ the earth he strode across the earth in three giant steps. “He placed the first step in ‘Mt. Saumanasa’ which lies in the ‘Udaya Adri’.” (Chapter 40-58 f Kishkinda Kanda). That point became the point of Sunrise. Where he put his last step was called Mt. Asta (Sunset Mountain). More about Mt. Asta here.. India lies at the centre of Mt. Udaya and Mt. Asta. 

Peru is therefore the land of the rising sun according to the Ramayana. What lay beyond Mt. Udaya Adri and Saumanasa, Valmiki wrote that he knew nothing except that it was there that the celestials frequent. 

Research indicates that Lord Vishnu was revered as Lord Viracocha in ancient America. He carried a ‘thunderbolt’ in his hand. Interestingly, the word ‘Adri’ in Sanskrit not only means ‘mountain’ or ‘rock’, it also means ‘thunderbolt’. Is the word Andes a distortion of the word ‘Adri’, a reference to Viracocha’s ‘thunderbolt’. Perhaps our friends in Peru can shed some light.

Is there a temple dedicated to Vishnu’s footprint (Vishnu Padam Temple) or Viracocha’s footprint in Peru? Are there any similarities to the Vishnu Padam Temples of India and Viracocha’s Temples in Peru? Yes, there are. But more about that in a later post.


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