From whatever angle Sugreeva, the chief of the monkey commandos of Ramayana, sees the earth, he describes it to be shaped similar to a cow’s hoof print. 

In the Valmiki Ramayana Sugreeva describes the shape of the earth
as seen from above the earth like ‘a circular ball shaped similar
to a cow’s hoof print’. The gap in the cow’s hoof
print certainly indicates Sugreeva having seen
the oceans that divide the continents.

Sugreeva tells Sri Rama that he got to know about the 

geography of the earth when he was trying to 

save his life being chased in a flight-sortie by Bali.

In Section 46, Verse 13 of Kishkinda Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, Sugreeva, tells Sri Rama, “I have then really seen the earth as in the reflection on the surface of a mirror, where the mirror shows all the objects in exactness, and the earth is like the circle of a fireball, where it is encircled with fire-like reddish, brownish, ochreish minerals and ores, and it appeared to me in my high flight like a cow-hoof-print in the mirror, called my perception“. [4-46-13]

In today’s world we are conditioned to look at the world ‘north side up’ but there really is no up or down.

The other view of the world. India at the centre of a land mass.
The Puranas say that ‘Jambhudvipa’ (Bharata) is at the centre of the world.

The other view of the world.

In Valmiki Ramayana when Sugreeva describes the route to the ‘vanaras’ headed east in search of the abducted Sita, he tells them that after reaching Shalmali Dvipa (identified as Australia), and further after crossing 5 oceans, they will reach a land where they will see ‘Ananta‘,the celestial serpent, balancing the world on its head.

South America is the Celestial Snake ‘Ananta‘ described
in the Ramayana and the Puranas. With a ‘1000 heads and
a narrow tail’ it supports the world on its head from ‘Patala’
(the world under). Lord Vishnu is known to have dwelt
in this part of the world.

Sugreeva then directs the Vanaras to head  northwards (towards Peru). He tells them that from the sea is visible a ‘three branched golden palm tree‘ engraved on a mountain. That, Sugreeva tells them, is the pointer that they have reached the ‘Udaya’ (Andes) mountains.

The ancient shining Paracas (Prakash) Trident of Peru
The Puranas describe the ‘Trident’ engraved on a
mountain as the ‘Vajra‘ of Indra. The Ramayana describes
it as the ‘three branched golden palm tree‘ engraved
on the ‘Udaya’ (Andes) mountains.

On route from Chile to Peru, in the Andean plateau which is the the second highest plateau on earth lies Mt. Parinacota. The ‘vanaras’ must then have seen Mt. Parina-cota from the coast of Chile – its summit is at a height of 20,000 feet! ‘Kuta’ (कुटis Sanskrit for ‘mountain’. 

Mt. Parincota (Parinkuta) on the Chungara Lake in Chile,
South America. ‘Kuta’ is Sanskrit for ‘mountain’. ‘Parina‘ has
many meanings in Sanskrit including ‘abundance’.
‘Pakshin’ means ‘bird’. The Ramayana mentions
a lake described as ‘Sudarshana’ (beautiful) in the region.

In the ancient Ayamara language ‘Parin’ means ‘flamingo’ and ‘cote’ means a ‘lake’. In Sanskrit ‘parnin’ (पर्णिन्) means ‘winged’ or ‘with plumes’; ‘kuta’ (कुट) means ‘mountain’. Hence, the Sanskrit ‘kuta’ is more appropriate and explains the word ‘cote’ better than Ayamara where it means ‘lake’. 

In the Parincota region, there lies a scenic lake by the name ‘Chungara’, earlier called ‘Chunkara’. It is the 29th highest lake in the world.

Could the name ‘Chunkara’ be derived from the Sanskrit ‘Sudarshana’ – the lake that Valmiki describes in the Ramayana. In literal Sanskrit ‘Sudarshan*’ means ‘good to look at’ or ‘beautiful’. However in the Aymara language ‘Chunkara’ means ‘pointed mountain’!!

(* Another lake that the Ramayana designates as ‘Sudarshan’ is one that it says is locatedin  Shalmali Dvipa. As per ancient Indian texts Shalmali Dvipa includes Australia and New Zealand.) 

Other places in Chile which may have names of Sanskrit origins in forgotten antiquity include the River Salila. ‘Salila’ (सलिल) means ‘water’. The tribe that populated the tip of South America called themselves the ‘yamana’. ‘Yaman’ (यमन) is the name of a Hindu God and ‘Yamuna’ (यमुना) is the name of a major river in India.

In the Ramayana, Sage Valmiki writes that what is inland beyond the Udaya (Andes) is not known, except that that part of land was frequented and inhabited by the celestials’. The ‘vanaras’ headed east from India reach Chile and Peru. They return from the Andes, never crossing the Andes mountain range.

A ‘vanara’ party in search of Goddess Sita heads in the eastern direction from Jambhu Dvipa‘ (Bharata) and reaches the Southern tip of South America via ‘Shalmali Dvipa‘ (Australia). The ‘vanara’ search party that heads west,  travels across the Sindhu river and reaches Central Asia. Kusha Dvipa (Africa) is not mentioned in the Ramayana.

There is an ancient  mine by the name ‘Ramayana‘ in Chile. How it got its name is not known. 
And, here’s one more for the ‘other view of the world’:

Earth rises over the moon.


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